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本文写作时间是2019年11月1日,接近这个时间的同学可以参考我这个教程安装。按照这个教程安装一定能成功,不成功你来打我。

一. 为什么是k8s v1.16.0?

最新版的v1.16.2试过了,一直无法安装完成,安装到kubeadm init那一步执行后,报了很多错,如:node xxx not found等。centos7都重装了几次,还是无法解决。用了一天都没安装完,差点放弃。后来在网上搜到的安装教程基本都是v1.16.0的,我不太相信是v1.16.2的坑所以先前没打算降级到v1.16.0。没办法了就试着安装v1.16.0版本,竟然成功了。记录在此,避免后来者踩坑。

本篇文章,安装大步骤如下:

  • 安装docker-ce 18.09.9(所有机器)
  • 设置k8s环境前置条件(所有机器)
  • 安装k8s v1.16.0 master管理节点
  • 安装k8s v1.16.0 node工作节点
  • 安装flannel(master)

这里有重要的一步,请记住自己master和node之间通信的ip,如我的master的ip为192.168.99.104,node的ip为:192.168.99.105. 请确保使用这两个ip在master和node上能互相ping通,这个master的ip 192.168.99.104接下来配置k8s的时候需要用到。

我的环境:

  • 操作系统:win10
  • 虚拟机:virtual box
  • linux发行版:CentOS7
  • linux内核(使用uname -r查看):3.10.0-957.el7.x86_64
  • master和node节点通信的ip(master):192.168.99.104

二. 安装docker-ce 18.09.9(所有机器)

所有安装k8s的机器都需要安装docker,命令如下:

# 安装docker所需的工具
yum install -y yum-utils device-mapper-persistent-data lvm2
# 配置阿里云的docker源
yum-config-manager --add-repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/docker-ce/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo
# 指定安装这个版本的docker-ce
yum install -y docker-ce-18.09.9-3.el7
# 启动docker
systemctl enable docker && systemctl start docker

三. 设置k8s环境准备条件(所有机器)

安装k8s的机器需要2个CPU和2g内存以上,这个简单,在虚拟机里面配置一下就可以了。然后执行以下脚本做一些准备操作。所有安装k8s的机器都需要这一步操作。

# 关闭防火墙
systemctl disable firewalld
systemctl stop firewalld

# 关闭selinux
# 临时禁用selinux
setenforce 0
# 永久关闭 修改/etc/sysconfig/selinux文件设置
sed -i 's/SELINUX=permissive/SELINUX=disabled/' /etc/sysconfig/selinux
sed -i "s/SELINUX=enforcing/SELINUX=disabled/g" /etc/selinux/config

# 禁用交换分区
swapoff -a
# 永久禁用,打开/etc/fstab注释掉swap那一行。
sed -i 's/.*swap.*/#&/' /etc/fstab

# 修改内核参数
cat <<EOF > /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1
EOF
sysctl --system

四. 安装k8s v1.16.0 master管理节点

如果还没安装docker,请参照本文步骤二安装docker-ce 18.09.9(所有机器)安装。 如果没设置k8s环境准备条件,请参照本文步骤三设置k8s环境准备条件(所有机器)执行。 以上两个步骤检查完毕之后,继续以下步骤。

1. 安装kubeadm、kubelet、kubectl

由于官方k8s源在google,国内无法访问,这里使用阿里云yum源

# 执行配置k8s阿里云源
cat <<EOF > /etc/yum.repos.d/kubernetes.repo
[kubernetes]
name=Kubernetes
baseurl=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/repos/kubernetes-el7-x86_64/
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
repo_gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/yum-key.gpg https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/rpm-package-key.gpg
EOF

# 安装kubeadm、kubectl、kubelet
yum install -y kubectl-1.16.0-0 kubeadm-1.16.0-0 kubelet-1.16.0-0

# 启动kubelet服务
systemctl enable kubelet && systemctl start kubelet

2. 初始化k8s

以下这个命令开始安装k8s需要用到的docker镜像,因为无法访问到国外网站,所以这条命令使用的是国内的阿里云的源(registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers)。另一个非常重要的是:这里的--apiserver-advertise-address使用的是master和node间能互相ping通的ip,我这里是192.168.99.104,刚开始在这里被坑了一个晚上,你请自己修改下ip执行。 这条命令执行时会卡在[preflight] You can also perform this action in beforehand using ''kubeadm config images pull,大概需要2分钟,请耐心等待。

# 下载管理节点中用到的6个docker镜像,你可以使用docker images查看到
# 这里需要大概两分钟等待,会卡在[preflight] You can also perform this action in beforehand using ''kubeadm config images pull
kubeadm init --image-repository registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers --kubernetes-version v1.16.0 --apiserver-advertise-address 192.168.99.104 --pod-network-cidr=10.244.0.0/16 --token-ttl 0

上面安装完后,会提示你输入如下命令,复制粘贴过来,执行即可。

# 上面安装完成后,k8s会提示你输入如下命令,执行
mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

3. 记住node加入集群的命令

上面kubeadm init执行成功后会返回给你node节点加入集群的命令,等会要在node节点上执行,需要保存下来,如果忘记了,可以使用如下命令获取。

kubeadm token create --print-join-command

以上,安装master节点完毕。可以使用kubectl get nodes查看一下,此时master处于NotReady状态,暂时不用管。

图片

五. 安装k8s v1.16.0 node工作节点

如果还没安装docker,请参照本文步骤二安装docker-ce 18.09.9(所有机器)安装。 如果没设置k8s环境准备条件,请参照本文步骤三设置k8s环境准备条件(所有机器)执行。 以上两个步骤检查完毕之后,继续以下步骤。

1. 安装kubeadm、kubelet

# 执行配置k8s阿里云源
cat <<EOF > /etc/yum.repos.d/kubernetes.repo
[kubernetes]
name=Kubernetes
baseurl=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/repos/kubernetes-el7-x86_64/
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
repo_gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/yum-key.gpg https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/rpm-package-key.gpg
EOF

# 安装kubeadm、kubectl、kubelet
yum install -y kubeadm-1.16.0-0 kubelet-1.16.0-0

# 启动kubelet服务
systemctl enable kubelet && systemctl start kubelet

2. 加入集群

这里加入集群的命令每个人都不一样,可以登录master节点,使用kubeadm token create --print-join-command 来获取。获取后执行如下。

# 加入集群,如果这里不知道加入集群的命令,可以登录master节点,使用kubeadm token create --print-join-command 来获取
kubeadm join 192.168.99.104:6443 --token ncfrid.7ap0xiseuf97gikl \
--discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:47783e9851a1a517647f1986225f104e81dbfd8fb256ae55ef6d68ce9334c6a2

加入成功后,可以在master节点上使用kubectl get nodes命令查看到加入的节点。

六. 安装flannel(master机器)

以上步骤安装完后,机器搭建起来了,但状态还是NotReady状态,如下图,master机器需要安装flanneld。

20191101095214.png

1. 下载官方fannel配置文件

使用wget命令,地址为:(https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/flannel/master/Documentation/kube-flannel.yml),这个地址国内访问不了,所以我把内容复制下来,为了避免前面文章过长,我把它粘贴到文章末尾第八个步骤附录了。这个yml配置文件中配置了一个国内无法访问的地址(quay.io),我已经将其改为国内可以访问的地址(quay-mirror.qiniu.com)。我们新建一个kube-flannel.yml文件,复制粘贴该内容即可。

2. 安装fannel

kubectl apply -f kube-flannel.yml

七. 大功告成

至此,k8s集群搭建完成,如下图节点已为Ready状态,大功告成,完结撒花。

20191101101725.png

八. 附录

这是kube-flannel.yml文件的内容,已经将无法访问的地址(quay.io)全部改为国内可以访问的地址(quay-mirror.qiniu.com)。我们新建一个kube-flannel.yml文件,复制粘贴该内容即可。

---
apiVersion: policy/v1beta1
kind: PodSecurityPolicy
metadata:
name: psp.flannel.unprivileged
annotations:
seccomp.security.alpha.kubernetes.io/allowedProfileNames: docker/default
seccomp.security.alpha.kubernetes.io/defaultProfileName: docker/default
apparmor.security.beta.kubernetes.io/allowedProfileNames: runtime/default
apparmor.security.beta.kubernetes.io/defaultProfileName: runtime/default
spec:
privileged: false
volumes:
- configMap
- secret
- emptyDir
- hostPath
allowedHostPaths:
- pathPrefix: "/etc/cni/net.d"
- pathPrefix: "/etc/kube-flannel"
- pathPrefix: "/run/flannel"
readOnlyRootFilesystem: false
# Users and groups
runAsUser:
rule: RunAsAny
supplementalGroups:
rule: RunAsAny
fsGroup:
rule: RunAsAny
# Privilege Escalation
allowPrivilegeEscalation: false
defaultAllowPrivilegeEscalation: false
# Capabilities
allowedCapabilities: ['NET_ADMIN']
defaultAddCapabilities: []
requiredDropCapabilities: []
# Host namespaces
hostPID: false
hostIPC: false
hostNetwork: true
hostPorts:
- min: 0
max: 65535
# SELinux
seLinux:
# SELinux is unused in CaaSP
rule: 'RunAsAny'
---
kind: ClusterRole
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
metadata:
name: flannel
rules:
- apiGroups: ['extensions']
resources: ['podsecuritypolicies']
verbs: ['use']
resourceNames: ['psp.flannel.unprivileged']
- apiGroups:
- ""
resources:
- pods
verbs:
- get
- apiGroups:
- ""
resources:
- nodes
verbs:
- list
- watch
- apiGroups:
- ""
resources:
- nodes/status
verbs:
- patch
---
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
metadata:
name: flannel
roleRef:
apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
kind: ClusterRole
name: flannel
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
name: flannel
namespace: kube-system
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
name: flannel
namespace: kube-system
---
kind: ConfigMap
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
name: kube-flannel-cfg
namespace: kube-system
labels:
tier: node
app: flannel
data:
cni-conf.json: |
{
"name": "cbr0",
"cniVersion": "0.3.1",
"plugins": [
{
"type": "flannel",
"delegate": {
"hairpinMode": true,
"isDefaultGateway": true
}
},
{
"type": "portmap",
"capabilities": {
"portMappings": true
}
}
]
}
net-conf.json: |
{
"Network": "10.244.0.0/16",
"Backend": {
"Type": "vxlan"
}
}
---
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: DaemonSet
metadata:
name: kube-flannel-ds-amd64
namespace: kube-system
labels:
tier: node
app: flannel
spec:
selector:
matchLabels:
app: flannel
template:
metadata:
labels:
tier: node
app: flannel
spec:
affinity:
nodeAffinity:
requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
nodeSelectorTerms:
- matchExpressions:
- key: beta.kubernetes.io/os
operator: In
values:
- linux
- key: beta.kubernetes.io/arch
operator: In
values:
- amd64
hostNetwork: true
tolerations:
- operator: Exists
effect: NoSchedule
serviceAccountName: flannel
initContainers:
- name: install-cni
image: quay-mirror.qiniu.com/coreos/flannel:v0.11.0-amd64
command:
- cp
args:
- -f
- /etc/kube-flannel/cni-conf.json
- /etc/cni/net.d/10-flannel.conflist
volumeMounts:
- name: cni
mountPath: /etc/cni/net.d
- name: flannel-cfg
mountPath: /etc/kube-flannel/
containers:
- name: kube-flannel
image: quay-mirror.qiniu.com/coreos/flannel:v0.11.0-amd64
command:
- /opt/bin/flanneld
args:
- --ip-masq
- --kube-subnet-mgr
resources:
requests:
cpu: "100m"
memory: "50Mi"
limits:
cpu: "100m"
memory: "50Mi"
securityContext:
privileged: false
capabilities:
add: ["NET_ADMIN"]
env:
- name: POD_NAME
valueFrom:
fieldRef:
fieldPath: metadata.name
- name: POD_NAMESPACE
valueFrom:
fieldRef:
fieldPath: metadata.namespace
volumeMounts:
- name: run
mountPath: /run/flannel
- name: flannel-cfg
mountPath: /etc/kube-flannel/
volumes:
- name: run
hostPath:
path: /run/flannel
- name: cni
hostPath:
path: /etc/cni/net.d
- name: flannel-cfg
configMap:
name: kube-flannel-cfg
---
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: DaemonSet
metadata:
name: kube-flannel-ds-arm64
namespace: kube-system
labels:
tier: node
app: flannel
spec:
selector:
matchLabels:
app: flannel
template:
metadata:
labels:
tier: node
app: flannel
spec:
affinity:
nodeAffinity:
requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
nodeSelectorTerms:
- matchExpressions:
- key: beta.kubernetes.io/os
operator: In
values:
- linux
- key: beta.kubernetes.io/arch
operator: In
values:
- arm64
hostNetwork: true
tolerations:
- operator: Exists
effect: NoSchedule
serviceAccountName: flannel
initContainers:
- name: install-cni
image: quay-mirror.qiniu.com/coreos/flannel:v0.11.0-arm64
command:
- cp
args:
- -f
- /etc/kube-flannel/cni-conf.json
- /etc/cni/net.d/10-flannel.conflist
volumeMounts:
- name: cni
mountPath: /etc/cni/net.d
- name: flannel-cfg
mountPath: /etc/kube-flannel/
containers:
- name: kube-flannel
image: quay-mirror.qiniu.com/coreos/flannel:v0.11.0-arm64
command:
- /opt/bin/flanneld
args:
- --ip-masq
- --kube-subnet-mgr
resources:
requests:
cpu: "100m"
memory: "50Mi"
limits:
cpu: "100m"
memory: "50Mi"
securityContext:
privileged: false
capabilities:
add: ["NET_ADMIN"]
env:
- name: POD_NAME
valueFrom:
fieldRef:
fieldPath: metadata.name
- name: POD_NAMESPACE
valueFrom:
fieldRef:
fieldPath: metadata.namespace
volumeMounts:
- name: run
mountPath: /run/flannel
- name: flannel-cfg
mountPath: /etc/kube-flannel/
volumes:
- name: run
hostPath:
path: /run/flannel
- name: cni
hostPath:
path: /etc/cni/net.d
- name: flannel-cfg
configMap:
name: kube-flannel-cfg
---
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: DaemonSet
metadata:
name: kube-flannel-ds-arm
namespace: kube-system
labels:
tier: node
app: flannel
spec:
selector:
matchLabels:
app: flannel
template:
metadata:
labels:
tier: node
app: flannel
spec:
affinity:
nodeAffinity:
requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
nodeSelectorTerms:
- matchExpressions:
- key: beta.kubernetes.io/os
operator: In
values:
- linux
- key: beta.kubernetes.io/arch
operator: In
values:
- arm
hostNetwork: true
tolerations:
- operator: Exists
effect: NoSchedule
serviceAccountName: flannel
initContainers:
- name: install-cni
image: quay-mirror.qiniu.com/coreos/flannel:v0.11.0-arm
command:
- cp
args:
- -f
- /etc/kube-flannel/cni-conf.json
- /etc/cni/net.d/10-flannel.conflist
volumeMounts:
- name: cni
mountPath: /etc/cni/net.d
- name: flannel-cfg
mountPath: /etc/kube-flannel/
containers:
- name: kube-flannel
image: quay-mirror.qiniu.com/coreos/flannel:v0.11.0-arm
command:
- /opt/bin/flanneld
args:
- --ip-masq
- --kube-subnet-mgr
resources:
requests:
cpu: "100m"
memory: "50Mi"
limits:
cpu: "100m"
memory: "50Mi"
securityContext:
privileged: false
capabilities:
add: ["NET_ADMIN"]
env:
- name: POD_NAME
valueFrom:
fieldRef:
fieldPath: metadata.name
- name: POD_NAMESPACE
valueFrom:
fieldRef:
fieldPath: metadata.namespace
volumeMounts:
- name: run
mountPath: /run/flannel
- name: flannel-cfg
mountPath: /etc/kube-flannel/
volumes:
- name: run
hostPath:
path: /run/flannel
- name: cni
hostPath:
path: /etc/cni/net.d
- name: flannel-cfg
configMap:
name: kube-flannel-cfg
---
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: DaemonSet
metadata:
name: kube-flannel-ds-ppc64le
namespace: kube-system
labels:
tier: node
app: flannel
spec:
selector:
matchLabels:
app: flannel
template:
metadata:
labels:
tier: node
app: flannel
spec:
affinity:
nodeAffinity:
requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
nodeSelectorTerms:
- matchExpressions:
- key: beta.kubernetes.io/os
operator: In
values:
- linux
- key: beta.kubernetes.io/arch
operator: In
values:
- ppc64le
hostNetwork: true
tolerations:
- operator: Exists
effect: NoSchedule
serviceAccountName: flannel
initContainers:
- name: install-cni
image: quay-mirror.qiniu.com/coreos/flannel:v0.11.0-ppc64le
command:
- cp
args:
- -f
- /etc/kube-flannel/cni-conf.json
- /etc/cni/net.d/10-flannel.conflist
volumeMounts:
- name: cni
mountPath: /etc/cni/net.d
- name: flannel-cfg
mountPath: /etc/kube-flannel/
containers:
- name: kube-flannel
image: quay-mirror.qiniu.com/coreos/flannel:v0.11.0-ppc64le
command:
- /opt/bin/flanneld
args:
- --ip-masq
- --kube-subnet-mgr
resources:
requests:
cpu: "100m"
memory: "50Mi"
limits:
cpu: "100m"
memory: "50Mi"
securityContext:
privileged: false
capabilities:
add: ["NET_ADMIN"]
env:
- name: POD_NAME
valueFrom:
fieldRef:
fieldPath: metadata.name
- name: POD_NAMESPACE
valueFrom:
fieldRef:
fieldPath: metadata.namespace
volumeMounts:
- name: run
mountPath: /run/flannel
- name: flannel-cfg
mountPath: /etc/kube-flannel/
volumes:
- name: run
hostPath:
path: /run/flannel
- name: cni
hostPath:
path: /etc/cni/net.d
- name: flannel-cfg
configMap:
name: kube-flannel-cfg
---
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: DaemonSet
metadata:
name: kube-flannel-ds-s390x
namespace: kube-system
labels:
tier: node
app: flannel
spec:
selector:
matchLabels:
app: flannel
template:
metadata:
labels:
tier: node
app: flannel
spec:
affinity:
nodeAffinity:
requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
nodeSelectorTerms:
- matchExpressions:
- key: beta.kubernetes.io/os
operator: In
values:
- linux
- key: beta.kubernetes.io/arch
operator: In
values:
- s390x
hostNetwork: true
tolerations:
- operator: Exists
effect: NoSchedule
serviceAccountName: flannel
initContainers:
- name: install-cni
image: quay-mirror.qiniu.com/coreos/flannel:v0.11.0-s390x
command:
- cp
args:
- -f
- /etc/kube-flannel/cni-conf.json
- /etc/cni/net.d/10-flannel.conflist
volumeMounts:
- name: cni
mountPath: /etc/cni/net.d
- name: flannel-cfg
mountPath: /etc/kube-flannel/
containers:
- name: kube-flannel
image: quay-mirror.qiniu.com/coreos/flannel:v0.11.0-s390x
command:
- /opt/bin/flanneld
args:
- --ip-masq
- --kube-subnet-mgr
resources:
requests:
cpu: "100m"
memory: "50Mi"
limits:
cpu: "100m"
memory: "50Mi"
securityContext:
privileged: false
capabilities:
add: ["NET_ADMIN"]
env:
- name: POD_NAME
valueFrom:
fieldRef:
fieldPath: metadata.name
- name: POD_NAMESPACE
valueFrom:
fieldRef:
fieldPath: metadata.namespace
volumeMounts:
- name: run
mountPath: /run/flannel
- name: flannel-cfg
mountPath: /etc/kube-flannel/
volumes:
- name: run
hostPath:
path: /run/flannel
- name: cni
hostPath:
path: /etc/cni/net.d
- name: flannel-cfg
configMap:
name: kube-flannel-cfg

文章目录
  1. 1. 一. 为什么是k8s v1.16.0?
  2. 2. 二. 安装docker-ce 18.09.9(所有机器)
  3. 3. 三. 设置k8s环境准备条件(所有机器)
  4. 4. 四. 安装k8s v1.16.0 master管理节点
    1. 4.1. 1. 安装kubeadm、kubelet、kubectl
    2. 4.2. 2. 初始化k8s
    3. 4.3. 3. 记住node加入集群的命令
  5. 5. 五. 安装k8s v1.16.0 node工作节点
    1. 5.1. 1. 安装kubeadm、kubelet
    2. 5.2. 2. 加入集群
  6. 6. 六. 安装flannel(master机器)
    1. 6.1. 1. 下载官方fannel配置文件
    2. 6.2. 2. 安装fannel
  7. 7. 七. 大功告成
  8. 8. 八. 附录