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写在前面

为什么会写这篇文章,起因于和朋友的聊天

这又触及到我的知识盲区了,首先来一波面向百度学习,直接根据关键字httpclient和okhttp的区别、性能比较进行搜索,没有找到想要的答案,于是就去overstackflow上看看是不是有人问过这个问题,果然不会让你失望的

所以从使用、性能、超时配置方面进行比较

使用

HttpClient和OkHttp一般用于调用其它服务,一般服务暴露出来的接口都为http,http常用请求类型就为GET、PUT、POST和DELETE,因此主要介绍这些请求类型的调用

HttpClient使用介绍

使用HttpClient发送请求主要分为一下几步骤:

  • 创建 CloseableHttpClient对象或CloseableHttpAsyncClient对象,前者同步,后者为异步
  • 创建Http请求对象
  • 调用execute方法执行请求,如果是异步请求在执行之前需调用start方法

创建连接:

CloseableHttpClient httpClient = HttpClientBuilder.create().build();

该连接为同步连接

GET请求:

@Test
public void testGet() throws IOException {
String api = "/api/files/1";
String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
HttpGet httpGet = new HttpGet(url);
CloseableHttpResponse response = httpClient.execute(httpGet);
System.out.println(EntityUtils.toString(response.getEntity()));
}

使用HttpGet表示该连接为GET请求,HttpClient调用execute方法发送GET请求

PUT请求:

@Test
public void testPut() throws IOException {
String api = "/api/user";
String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
HttpPut httpPut = new HttpPut(url);
UserVO userVO = UserVO.builder().name("h2t").id(16L).build();
httpPut.setHeader("Content-Type", "application/json;charset=utf8");
httpPut.setEntity(new StringEntity(JSONObject.toJSONString(userVO), "UTF-8"));
CloseableHttpResponse response = httpClient.execute(httpPut);
System.out.println(EntityUtils.toString(response.getEntity()));
}

POST请求:

  • 添加对象

    @Test
    public void testPost() throws IOException {
    String api = "/api/user";
    String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
    HttpPost httpPost = new HttpPost(url);
    UserVO userVO = UserVO.builder().name("h2t2").build();
    httpPost.setHeader("Content-Type", "application/json;charset=utf8");
    httpPost.setEntity(new StringEntity(JSONObject.toJSONString(userVO), "UTF-8"));
    CloseableHttpResponse response = httpClient.execute(httpPost);
    System.out.println(EntityUtils.toString(response.getEntity()));
    }

    该请求是一个创建对象的请求,需要传入一个json字符串

  • 上传文件

    @Test
    public void testUpload1() throws IOException {
    String api = "/api/files/1";
    String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
    HttpPost httpPost = new HttpPost(url);
    File file = new File("C:/Users/hetiantian/Desktop/学习/docker_practice.pdf");
    FileBody fileBody = new FileBody(file);
    MultipartEntityBuilder builder = MultipartEntityBuilder.create();
    builder.setMode(HttpMultipartMode.BROWSER_COMPATIBLE);
    builder.addPart("file", fileBody); //addPart上传文件
    HttpEntity entity = builder.build();
    httpPost.setEntity(entity);
    CloseableHttpResponse response = httpClient.execute(httpPost);
    System.out.println(EntityUtils.toString(response.getEntity()));
    }

    通过addPart上传文件

DELETE请求:

@Test
public void testDelete() throws IOException {
String api = "/api/user/12";
String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
HttpDelete httpDelete = new HttpDelete(url);
CloseableHttpResponse response = httpClient.execute(httpDelete);
System.out.println(EntityUtils.toString(response.getEntity()));
}

请求的取消:

@Test
public void testCancel() throws IOException {
String api = "/api/files/1";
String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
HttpGet httpGet = new HttpGet(url);
httpGet.setConfig(requestConfig); //设置超时时间
//测试连接的取消

long begin = System.currentTimeMillis();
CloseableHttpResponse response = httpClient.execute(httpGet);
while (true) {
if (System.currentTimeMillis() - begin > 1000) {
httpGet.abort();
System.out.println("task canceled");
break;
}
}

System.out.println(EntityUtils.toString(response.getEntity()));
}

调用abort方法取消请求 执行结果:

task canceled
cost 8098 msc
Disconnected from the target VM, address: '127.0.0.1:60549', transport: 'socket'

java.net.SocketException: socket closed...【省略】

OkHttp使用

使用OkHttp发送请求主要分为一下几步骤:

  • 创建OkHttpClient对象
  • 创建Request对象
  • 将Request 对象封装为Call
  • 通过Call 来执行同步或异步请求,调用execute方法同步执行,调用enqueue方法异步执行

创建连接:

private OkHttpClient client = new OkHttpClient();

GET请求:

@Test
public void testGet() throws IOException {
String api = "/api/files/1";
String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
Request request = new Request.Builder()
.url(url)
.get()
.build();
final Call call = client.newCall(request);
Response response = call.execute();
System.out.println(response.body().string());
}

PUT请求:

@Test
public void testPut() throws IOException {
String api = "/api/user";
String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
//请求参数
UserVO userVO = UserVO.builder().name("h2t").id(11L).build();
RequestBody requestBody = RequestBody.create(MediaType.parse("application/json; charset=utf-8"),
JSONObject.toJSONString(userVO));
Request request = new Request.Builder()
.url(url)
.put(requestBody)
.build();
final Call call = client.newCall(request);
Response response = call.execute();
System.out.println(response.body().string());
}

POST请求:

  • 添加对象

    @Test
    public void testPost() throws IOException {
    String api = "/api/user";
    String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
    //请求参数
    JSONObject json = new JSONObject();
    json.put("name", "hetiantian");
    RequestBody requestBody = RequestBody.create(MediaType.parse("application/json; charset=utf-8"), String.valueOf(json));
    Request request = new Request.Builder()
    .url(url)
    .post(requestBody) //post请求
    .build();
    final Call call = client.newCall(request);
    Response response = call.execute();
    System.out.println(response.body().string());
    }
  • 上传文件

    @Test
    public void testUpload() throws IOException {
    String api = "/api/files/1";
    String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
    RequestBody requestBody = new MultipartBody.Builder()
    .setType(MultipartBody.FORM)
    .addFormDataPart("file", "docker_practice.pdf",
    RequestBody.create(MediaType.parse("multipart/form-data"),
    new File("C:/Users/hetiantian/Desktop/学习/docker_practice.pdf")))
    .build();
    Request request = new Request.Builder()
    .url(url)
    .post(requestBody) //默认为GET请求,可以不写
    .build();
    final Call call = client.newCall(request);
    Response response = call.execute();
    System.out.println(response.body().string());
    }

    通过addFormDataPart方法模拟表单方式上传文件

DELETE请求:

@Test
public void testDelete() throws IOException {
String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
//请求参数
Request request = new Request.Builder()
.url(url)
.delete()
.build();
final Call call = client.newCall(request);
Response response = call.execute();
System.out.println(response.body().string());
}

请求的取消:

@Test
public void testCancelSysnc() throws IOException {
String api = "/api/files/1";
String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
Request request = new Request.Builder()
.url(url)
.get()
.build();
final Call call = client.newCall(request);
Response response = call.execute();
long start = System.currentTimeMillis();
//测试连接的取消
while (true) {
//1分钟获取不到结果就取消请求
if (System.currentTimeMillis() - start > 1000) {
call.cancel();
System.out.println("task canceled");
break;
}
}

System.out.println(response.body().string());
}

调用cancel方法进行取消 测试结果:

task canceled
cost 9110 msc

java.net.SocketException: socket closed...【省略】

小结

  • OkHttp使用build模式创建对象来的更简洁一些,并且使用.post/.delete/.put/.get方法表示请求类型,不需要像HttpClient创建HttpGet、HttpPost等这些方法来创建请求类型

  • 依赖包上,如果HttpClient需要发送异步请求、实现文件上传,需要额外的引入异步请求依赖

    <!---文件上传-->
    <dependency>
    <groupId>org.apache.httpcomponents</groupId>
    <artifactId>httpmime</artifactId>
    <version>4.5.3</version>
    </dependency>
    <!--异步请求-->
    <dependency>
    <groupId>org.apache.httpcomponents</groupId>
    <artifactId>httpasyncclient</artifactId>
    <version>4.5.3</version>
    </dependency>
  • 请求的取消,HttpClient使用abort方法,OkHttp使用cancel方法,都挺简单的,如果使用的是异步client,则在抛出异常时调用取消请求的方法即可

超时设置

HttpClient超时设置:
在HttpClient4.3+版本以上,超时设置通过RequestConfig进行设置

private CloseableHttpClient httpClient = HttpClientBuilder.create().build();
private RequestConfig requestConfig = RequestConfig.custom()
.setSocketTimeout(60 * 1000)
.setConnectTimeout(60 * 1000).build();
String api = "/api/files/1";
String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
HttpGet httpGet = new HttpGet(url);
httpGet.setConfig(requestConfig); //设置超时时间

超时时间是设置在请求类型HttpGet上,而不是HttpClient上

OkHttp超时设置:
直接在OkHttp上进行设置

private OkHttpClient client = new OkHttpClient.Builder()
.connectTimeout(60, TimeUnit.SECONDS)//设置连接超时时间
.readTimeout(60, TimeUnit.SECONDS)//设置读取超时时间
.build();

小结:
如果client是单例模式,HttpClient在设置超时方面来的更灵活,针对不同请求类型设置不同的超时时间,OkHttp一旦设置了超时时间,所有请求类型的超时时间也就确定

HttpClient和OkHttp性能比较

测试环境:

  • CPU 六核
  • 内存 8G
  • windows10

每种测试用例都测试五次,排除偶然性

client连接为单例:

client连接不为单例:

单例模式下,HttpClient的响应速度要更快一些,单位为毫秒,性能差异相差不大 非单例模式下,OkHttp的性能更好,HttpClient创建连接比较耗时,因为多数情况下这些资源都会写成单例模式,因此图一的测试结果更具有参考价值

总结

OkHttp和HttpClient在性能和使用上不分伯仲,根据实际业务选择即可
最后附:示例代码,欢迎forkstar*
好久没有对外输出文章了

主要是写的前两篇没有人看,受打击了,急需网友的肯定【点赞呀

文章目录
  1. 1. 写在前面
  2. 2. 使用
    1. 2.0.1. HttpClient使用介绍
    2. 2.0.2. OkHttp使用
    3. 2.0.3. 小结
  • 3. 超时设置
  • 4. HttpClient和OkHttp性能比较
  • 5. 总结